The issues of alcohol withdrawal syndrome: current state of the problem
Annotation. Alcohol addiction is one of the three main health problems in the world, which directly or indirectly increases the mortality rate, wherein it poses the greatest threat to the developed countries of Europe and America. Identification of promising directions for resolving the issue of alcohol withdrawal syndrome with delirium is one of the levers to reduce the consequences of its harmful use. It was made an analysis of the electronic database of scientific publications Pubmed and the latest WHO data, the main approaches to the pathogenesis and intensive care of alcoholic delirium in Ukraine and abroad were highlighted and displayed, clinical and laboratory diagnostic aspects were distinguished. There is a certain vision of the pathogenesis of alcohol withdrawal syndrome as an imbalance in the GABA and glutamate-ergic systems in brain neurons. Diagnostic criteria have been developed and introduced into clinical practice to determine the severity of withdrawal status, as well as sedation-agitation scales, it is not completely determined the influence of electrolyte disturbances, namely magnesium deficiency on the severity of the condition, the effectiveness of sedation and mortality. The optimal way to increase the effectiveness of the treatment of alcoholic delirium, which would ensure an adequate level of sedation, has not yet been found all over the world, at the same time, without increasing the risk of complications in the form of an overdose of tranquilizers and hypnotics, both in case of their isolated and combined use. The possibility of using chelate compounds containing GABA in themselves, as well as organic magnesium salts, namely gluconic acid salts, is promising.
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