Influence of environmental factors on the qualitative and quantitative parameters of male ejaculate (literature review)

  • S.V. Khmil Ternopil State Medical University
  • O.Yu. Mayorova Ternopil State Medical University
  • I.V. Dudchuk Professor S. Khmil's Medical Center
Keywords: ejaculate, spermogram, environmental factors


Today it is important to study the problem of male infertility, as well as to identify the factors of its occurrence. The purpose of the work is to evaluate the overall picture of the quality of ejaculate during the last 50 years and to determine the reasons for such changes. More than 40 literary sources were published for thorough analysis in the period 1984–2018 (the share of new references is 20%). There was a decrease in sperm concentration by 1.5% / year, total sperm count — 1.6% / year, total sperm motility — 0.4% / year, decrease in the percentage of progressive motility sperm by 5.5% / year and with normal morphology 2.2% / year. One of the main reasons for the deterioration of sperm quality is the impact of negative environmental factors — chemical and radioactive contamination, as well as electromagnetic radiation. Among the most toxic substances are the heavy metals, pesticides, bisphenol A, phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxin and its derivatives. Thus, over the last 50 years there has been a decline in the qualitative and quantitative indices of ejaculate men worldwide. One of the reasons is the worsening environmental situation.


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How to Cite
Khmil, S., Mayorova, O., & Dudchuk, I. (2019). Influence of environmental factors on the qualitative and quantitative parameters of male ejaculate (literature review). Reports of Vinnytsia National Medical University, 23(3), 530-534.