Clinical features of bronchial asthma course in children of Vinnytska oblast, depending on age and level of the disease control
According to various epidemiological studies, the prevalence of bronchial asthma (BA) in children in Ukraine ranges from 5 to 12%. Despite numerous studies of etiological factors, mechanisms of pathogenesis, the creation of international and national programs, until now it is not possible to take control of the morbidity and course of asthma. Therefore, the purpose of our study is to determine the clinical features of the course of bronchial asthma in children, depending on the age and level of disease control. We examined 227 children with asthma aged 6 to 17 years. In the objective examination, respiratory failure, shortness of breath, dry cough, nasal breathing difficulties, wheezy breathing, emphysema, bloating of the chest, were taken into account. The statistical processing of the results was carried out using the IBM SPSS Statistics, version 20 (2013), using parametric and non-parametric methods for evaluating the results. Under supervision were 181 boys (79.73±0.5%), from the total number of examined patients with asthma and 46 girls (20.27±1.98%). The control group included 40 practically healthy children aged 6 to 17 years. It was established that the persistent course of light and medium severity was noted 2.5 times more often than the severe course of asthma, and also 2.4 and 2 times more often (p≤0.01) in the age group of 6–11 years, unlike children 12–17 years old. Severe exacerbations were twice as likely to occur in patients with asthma-mediated etiology, and lungs — in patients with atopic asthma. Uncontrolled levels of the disease were noted 1.6–2 times more often in non-atopic form of asthma, than in its other variants. Thus, among children with asthma, mixed asthma and non-atopic asthma with an uncontrolled course, there is a clear need to find factors that are trigger in the development of exacerbations of the disease, determine their duration and severity, which helps to prevent the progression of asthma and avoid complications.
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