The morphological changes in parathyroid glands, caused simulated prolonged influence of heavy metal salts

Keywords: parathyroid glands, parаthyrocytes, morphological structure, parathormone, heavy metals salts, environmental pollution.


The main problem today is environmental pollution with heavy metal salts. Biological activity and their ability to accumulate in the environment and the body leads to the disruption of many systems and organs. Parathyroid glands are important regulators of calcium homeostasis, which affects a lot of physiological processes in the body. Therefore, the work is devoted to the study of the morphological and functional characteristics of the parathyroid glands of laboratory rats under conditions of prolonged use of a combination of heavy metal salts. Study of the peculiarities of the structure and functional activity of the glands was carried out on adult male rats (n = 12). The animals were divided into groups: the first — its control, the second — rats, which received a water solution of a mixture of salts of heavy metals. The material was taken on the 90th day of the experiment. Histological preparations were made 5–7 microns thick, stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Study of the linear parameters of the parathyroid glands was carried out on the largest longitudinal section. The area of the glands and cells, the thickness of the capsule and the layer of connective tissue in the parenchyma of the organ were measured. During the laboratory study of the blood of rats, the content of calcium and magnesium was determined, as well as the activity of parathyroid hormone. Conducted statistical treatment of the data. It has been established that with long-term admission of a combination of salts of heavy metals into the organism of rats leads to morphological changes in the parenchyma and stroma of the glands, there are changes in the content of calcium and magnesium in the biochemical parameters of blood, as well as inhibition of parathormone secretion. In the future, it is planned to study the morphofunctional features of the parathyroid glands in the process of readoptation after consuming a combination of heavy metal salts.

Author Biographies

A. Romaniuk

1.Романюк Анатолій Миколайович
Romaniuk Anatolii
Романюк Анатолий Николаевич
номер ORCID 0000-0003-2560-1382
д. мед. н., професор , завідувач кафедри патологічної анатомії, Сумський державний університет.
MD,DM, Professor . Department of Pathological Anatomy. Sumy State University

O. Tymakova

2. Тимакова Олена Олександрівна
Tymakova Olena
Тимакова Елена Александровна
номер ORCID 0000-0001-7044-6276
Асистент. Кафедра морфології. Сумський державний університет.
Ассистент. Кафедра морфологии. Сумской государственный университет.
Assistent. Department of Morphology. Sumy State University

J. Lyndina

4. Линдіна Юлія Миколаївна
Lyndina Julia
Лындина Юлия Николаевна
номер ORCID 0000-0002-2132-0965
Аспірант. Сумський державний університет
Аспирант. Сумской государственный университет
Postgraduate. Sumy State University

N. Gryntsova

3. Гринцова Наталія Борисівна
Gryntsova Natalia
Гринцова Наталия Борисовна
номер ORCID 0000-0002-6713-7533
к. б. н., доцент, кафедра морфології. Сумський державний університет.
к.б.н., доцент, кафедра морфологии. Сумской государственный университет
CB, Docent. Department of Morphology. Sumy State University

I. Kravtsova

5. Кравцова Ірина Анатоліївна
Kravtsova Irina
Кравцова Ирина Анатольевна
номер ORCID 0000-0002-5160-2162
Асистент. Кафедра морфології. Сумський державний університет.
Ассистент. Кафедра морфологии. Сумской государственный университет.
Assistent. Department of Morphology. Sumy State University

V. Kust

6. Куст Владислава Володимирівна
Kust Vladysava
Куст Владислава Владимировна
номер ORCID 0000-0002-1505-6416
Студент. Сумський державний університет.
Студент. Сумской государственный университет.
Sumy State University, student


1. Archipova, G. I., Mudrak, T. O., & Zavarna, D. V. (2010) Vplyv nadlyshkovogo vmistu vazhkykh metaliv u pytniy vodi na organizm ludyny [Influence of excess content of heavy metals in drinking water on the human body]. Visnyk NAU – Herald NAU, 42 (1), 232–235. DOI: 10.18372/2306-1472.42.1840.

2. Kaschenko, S. A., & Erochina, V. V. (2014). Ismenenia v strukture paraschitovidnoy zhelez krys posle vozdeystviya tsiklofosfanu [Changes in the structure of the parathyroid glands of rats after exposure to cyclophosphamide]. Zhurnal Grodnenskogo gosudarstvennogo medicinskogo universiteta – Journal of Grodno State Medical University, 2, 78–80.

3. Mudryiy, I. V., & Korolenko, T. K. (2002). Tyazhelye metally v okruzhayushej srede i ih vliyanie na organizm [Heavy metals in the environment and their effects on the body]. Vrachebnoe delo – Medical case, 5, 6–10.

4. Chernenko, S. M. (2011). Pervichnyj giperparatireoz: osnovy patogeneza, diagnostiki i hirurgicheskogo lecheniya [Primary hyperparathyroidism: the basics of pathogenesis, diagnosis and surgical treatment]. Kiev: TOV “VPK” “Ekspres-PolIgraf.”

5. Almaden, Y., Felsenfeld, A. J., Rodriguez, M., Cañadillas, S., Luque, F., Bas, A., … Canalejo, A. (2003). Proliferation in hyperplastic human and normal rat parathyroid glands: role of phos-phate, calcitriol, and gender. Kidney International, 64 (6). 2311–7. DOI:10.1046/j.1523-1755.2003.00331.x.

6. Brown, E. M. (2002). The pathophysiology of primary hyperparathyroidism. J. Bone Miner Res., 17 (2), 24–29. Retrieved from

7. Elinder, C.-G., Friberg, L., Kjeiisstrom, T., Nordberg, G., & Oberdoerstser, G. (1994). Biological monitoring of metals. Geneva, WHO. Retrieved from

8. Mihai, R., & Fardon, J. R. (2000). Parathyroid diseases and calcium matabolism. Br. J. Anaesth., 85, 29–43. DOI:10.1093/bja/85.1.29.

9. Vashkulat, N. P., Palgov, V. I., Spektor, D. R., & Dudnik, V. P. (2002). Establishing levels of heavy metals in soils of Ukraine. Environment & Health, 2 (21), 44–46.

10. Wang, Q. (1996). Parathyroid cell proliferation in the rat: effect of age and of phosphate administration and recovery. Endocrinology, 137 (11), 4558–6. DOI:10.1210/endo.137.11.8895317.
How to Cite
Romaniuk, A., Tymakova, O., Lyndina, J., Gryntsova, N., Kravtsova, I., & Kust, V. (2019). The morphological changes in parathyroid glands, caused simulated prolonged influence of heavy metal salts. Reports of Vinnytsia National Medical University, 23(1), 80-83.