Morphofunctional alterations of the adrenal cortex of sexually mature rats under prolonged exposure to heavy metal salts
The salts of heavy metals negatively affect the health of the population and cause the development of the pathology of individual organs and systems of the body. Adrenal hormones are one of the key places in regulating and maintaining the basic functions of the body. The aim of the study — the study of morphological rearrangements of the structural components of the adrenal cortex of sexually mature male rats under conditions of prolonged exposure to the combination of heavy metal salts remains relevant and insufficiently studied. The experiment was conducted on 12 animals weighing 250–300 g, aged 7–8 months. Animals of the experimental group used for 90 days the usual drinking water, saturated with a combination of heavy metal salts. Commonly used histological methods of research were used. Long-term admission into the body of sexually-mature rats of a combination of heavy metal salts leads to morphological rearrangements of the stroma, vascular bed, morphology and secretory activity of cells of the adrenal gland, mainly zona fasciculata and zona reticularis. Development in spongy sacs of lipid vacuolar and granular degeneration indicates a weakening of steroidogenesis, which negatively affects the development of compensatory and adaptive processes in the body and the general adaptation syndrome in response to the action of the damaging agent. So, adaptive-compensatory processes in the adrenal cortex with signs of reduced functional activity, characteristic for the initial stages of depletion of the general adaptive syndrome. Prospects for further development are based on conducting studies of adrenal rats in conditions of reparative changes after long periods of influence of the combination of heavy metal salts on the body.
2. Colby, H. D. (1981). Chemical suppression of steroidogenesis. Environmental Health Perspectives, 38, 119–127.
3. Everds, N. E., Snyder, P. W., Rosol, T. J., Creasy, D. M., Bailey, K. L., Bolon, B., & Sellers, T. (2013). Stress during routine nonclinical safety studies: a review of its impact and assessment. Toxicol. Pathol. (in press).
4. Gupta, V. K., Singh, S., Agrawal, A., Siddiqi, N. J., & Sharma, B. (2015a). Phytochemicals mediated remediation of neurotoxicity induced by heavy metals. Biochem. Res. Int., 2015, 534769. doi: 10.1155/2015/534769.
5. Hallberg, E. (1990). Metabolism and toxicity of xenobiotics in the adrenal cortex, with particular reference to 7,12-dimethybenz(a)anthracene. J. Biochem. Toxicol., 5, 71–90.
6. Hamid, A., Riaz, H., Akhtar, S., & Ahmad, S. R. (2016). Heavy Metal Contamination in Vegetables, Soil and Water and Potential Health Risk Assessment. Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 16 (4), 786–94. DOI: 10.5829/idosi.aejaes.2016.16.4.103149.
7. Harvey, P. W. (2010). Toxic Responses of the Adrenal Cortex. In: McQueen, C. A. (Ed.). Comprehensive Toxicology. Academic Press, Oxford, UK, 11, 265–289.
8. Harvey, P. W., Everett, D. J., & Springall, C. J. (2007). Adrenal toxicology; a strategy for assessment of functional toxicity to the adrenal cortex and steroidogenesis. J. Appl. Toxicol., 27, 103–115. DOI: 10.1002/jat.1221
9. Harvey, P. W., Everett, D. J., & Springall, C. J. (2009). Adrenal toxicology: Molecular targets, endocrine mechanisms, hormonal interactions, assessment models and species differences in toxicity. In: Harvey, P.W., Everett, D.J., Springall, C.J. (Eds.), Adrenal Toxicology. Informa Healthcare, New York, NY, 3–35.
10. Harvey, P. W., & Sutcliffe, C. (2010). Adrenocortical hypertrophy: Establishing cause and toxicological significance. J. Appl. Toxicol., 30, 617–626. doi: 10.1002/jat.1569.
11. Hinson, J. P., & Raven, P. W. (2006). Effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on adrenal function. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 20, 111–120. DOI: 10.1016/j.beem.2005.09.006.
12. Jaishankar M., Tseten T. Anbalagan N., Mathew BB., & Beeregowda KN. (2014). Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdiscip Toxicol., 7 (2), 60–72. DOI: 10.2478/intox-2014-0009.
13. Ng, T. B., & Liu, W. K. (1990). Toxic effect of heavy metals on cells isolated from the rat adrenal and testis. In Vitro Cellular &Development Biology, 26 (1), 24–28.
14. Rana, S. V. S. (2014). Perspectives in endocrine toxicity of heavy metal. Biological Trace Element Research, 160(1), 1–14. doi: 10.1007/s12011-014-0023-7.
15. Rastogi, R. B., & Singhai, R. L. (2015). Effect of Chronic Cadmium Treatment on Rat Adrenal Catecholamines. Environmental Toxicology, 30 (12), 1445–1458.
16. Sanderson, T. (2009). Adrenocortical toxicology in vitro: Assessment of steroidogenic enzyme expression and steroid production in H295R cells. In: Harvey, P. W., Everett, D. J. & Springall, C. J. (Eds.). Adrenal Toxicology. Informa Healthcare, New York, NY, 175–182.
17. Sharma, B., Singh, S., & Siddiqi, N. J. (2014). Biomedical implications of heavy metals induced imbalances in redox systems. Biomed. Res. Int., ID 640754, 26 p. doi: 10.1155/2014/640754.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.